Michael Schulson notes the inconsistency of the community of fashion’s supposed commitment to Science as demonstrated by the ability of Whole Foods, every fashionista’s preferred market, to vend an endless array of products promising better health on the basis of one form or other of pseudo-science.
Americans get riled up about creationists and climate change deniers, but lap up the quasi-religious snake oil at Whole Foods. Itâ€™s all pseudoscienceâ€”so why are some kinds of pseudoscience more equal than others?
If you want to write about spiritually-motivated pseudoscience in America, you head to the Creation Museum in Kentucky. Itâ€™s like a Law of Journalism. The museum has inspired hundreds of book chapters and articles (some of them, admittedly, mine) since it opened up in 2007. The place is like media magnet. And our nationâ€™s liberal, coastal journalists are so many piles of iron fillings.
But you donâ€™t have to schlep all the way to Kentucky in order to visit Americaâ€™s greatest shrine to pseudoscience. In fact, that shrine is a 15-minute trip away from most American urbanites.
Iâ€™m talking, of course, about Whole Foods Market. From the probiotics aisle to the vaguely ridiculous Organic Integrity outreach effort (more on that later), Whole Foods has all the ingredients necessary to give Richard Dawkins nightmares. And if you want a sense of how weird, and how fraught, the relationship between science, politics, and commerce is in our modern world, then thereâ€™s really no better place to go. Because anti-science isnâ€™t just a religious, conservative phenomenonâ€”and the way in which it crosses cultural lines can tell us a lot about why places like the Creation Museum inspire so much rage, while places like Whole Foods donâ€™t.
My own local Whole Foods is just a block away from the campus of Duke University. Like almost everything else near downtown Durham, N.C., itâ€™s visited by a predominantly liberal clientele that skews academic, with more science PhDs per capita than a Mensa convention.
Still, thereâ€™s a lot in your average Whole Foods thatâ€™s resolutely pseudoscientific. The homeopathy section has plenty of Latin words and mathematical terms, but many of its remedies are so diluted that, statistically speaking, they may not contain a single molecule of the substance they purport to deliver. The book sectionâ€”yep, Whole Foods sells booksâ€”boasts many M.D.â€™s among its authors, along with titles like The Coconut Oil Miracle and Herbal Medicine, Healing, and Cancer, which was written by a theologian and based on what the author calls the Eclectic Triphasic Medical System.
You can buy chocolate with â€œa meld of rich goji berries and ashwagandha root to strengthen your immune system,â€ and bottles of ChlorOxygen chlorophyll concentrate, which â€œbuilds better blood.â€ Thereâ€™s cereal with the kind of ingredients that are â€œmade in a kitchenâ€”not in a lab,â€ and tea designed to heal the human heart.
Nearby are eight full shelves of probioticsâ€”live bacteria intended to improve general health. I invited a biologist friend who studies human gut bacteria to come take a look with me. She read the healing claims printed on a handful of bottles and frowned. â€œThis is bullshit,â€ she said, and went off to buy some vegetables. Later, while purchasing a bag of chickpeas, I browsed among the magazine racks. There was Paleo Living, and, not far away, the latest issue of What Doctors Donâ€™t Tell You. Pseudoscience bubbles over into anti-science. A sample headline: â€œStay sharp till the end: the secret cause of Alzheimerâ€™s.â€ A sample opening sentence: â€œWe like to think that medicine works.â€
At times, the Whole Foods selection slips from the pseudoscientific into the quasi-religious. Itâ€™s not just the Ezekiel 4:9 bread (its recipe drawn from the eponymous Bible verse), or Dr. Bronnerâ€™s Magic Soaps, or Vitamineral Earthâ€™s â€œSacred Healing Food.â€ Itâ€™s also, at least for Jewish shoppers, the taboos that have grown up around the companyâ€™s Organic Integrity effort, all of which sound eerily like kosher law. Thereâ€™s a sign in the Durham store suggesting that shoppers bag their organic and conventional fruit separatelyâ€”lest one rub off on the otherâ€”and grind their organic coffees at homeâ€”because the Whole Foods grinders process conventional coffee, too, and so might transfer some non-organic dust. â€œThis slicer used for cutting both CONVENTIONAL and ORGANIC breadsâ€ warns a sign above the Durham locationâ€™s bread slicer. Synagogue kitchens are the only other places in which Iâ€™ve seen signs implying that level of food-separation purity.
Look, if homeopathic remedies make you feel better, take them. If the Paleo diet helps you eat fewer TV dinners, thatâ€™s greatâ€”even if the Paleo diet is probably premised more on The Flintstones than it is on any actual evidence about human evolutionary history. If non-organic crumbs bother you, avoid them. And thereâ€™s much to praise in Whole Foodsâ€™ commitment to sustainability and healthful foods.
Still: a significant portion of what Whole Foods sells is based on simple pseudoscience. And sometimes that can spill over into outright anti-science (think What Doctors Donâ€™t Tell You, or Whole Foodsâ€™ overblown GMO campaign, which could merit its own article). If scientific accuracy in the public sphere is your jam, is there really that much of a difference between Creation Museum founder Ken Ham, who seems to have made a career marketing pseudoscience about the origins of the world, and John Mackey, a founder and CEO of Whole Foods Market, who seems to have made a career, in part, out of marketing pseudoscience about health?
Read the whole thing.
But there really is no inconsistency. The truth of the matter is that the national elite is credentialed, but ill-educated and typically scientifically illiterate. It is demonstrably perfectly possible to get a graduate degree in a scientific field and to fail to understand that an unfalsifiable theory like Global Warming is not science, precisely because it is unfalsifiable.
Their beliefs about the supposed health benefits of various products are perfectly akin to their choices of belief in all other areas.