The people we call Anglo-Saxons were actually immigrants from northern Germany and southern Scandinavia. Bede, a monk from Northumbria writing some centuries later, says that they were from some of the most powerful and warlike tribes in Germany.
Bede names three of these tribes: the Angles, Saxons and Jutes. There were probably many other peoples who set out for Britain in the early fifth century, however. Batavians, Franks and Frisians are known to have made the sea crossing to the stricken province of â€˜Britanniaâ€™.
The collapse of the Roman empire was one of the greatest catastrophes in history. Britain, or â€˜Britanniaâ€™, had never been entirely subdued by the Romans. In the far north â€“ what they called Caledonia (modern Scotland) â€“ there were tribes who defied the Romans, especially the Picts. The Romans built a great barrier, Hadrianâ€™s Wall, to keep them out of the civilised and prosperous part of Britain.
As soon as Roman power began to wane, these defences were degraded, and in AD 367 the Picts smashed through them. Gildas, a British historian, says that Saxon war-bands were hired to defend Britain when the Roman army had left. So the Anglo-Saxons were invited immigrants, according to this theory, a bit like the immigrants from the former colonies of the British empire in the period after 1945.
22 Jun 2018