Reconstructing the Recipe for the Soul Cake
Cuisine, England, Folk Songs, Middle Ages, Soul Cakes
Last month, a challenge from Durham University spurred bakers to whip up a soul cake, a bygone bun once integral to a medieval tradition of feeding the poor and honoring the dead. But, in the spirit of competitive baking reality shows, there was a catch: Nobody really knows how, traditionally, it was supposed to be baked.
We know generally what soul cakes looked like, and what was inside of them. We know that bakers crafted them into small, round, square, or oval bunsâ€”garnishing the top with currants in the shape of a cross. And we know its purpose: Giving a soul cake to someone in poverty allegedly freed a departed soul from Purgatory. But weâ€™re still in the dark about its intended taste and texture, and exactly how to go about concocting a soul cake in true medieval fashion.
â€œWe have a recipe from a household book from 1604 compiled by a certain Lady Elinor Fettiplace that includes a recipe for a soul cake,â€ says Dr. Barbara Ravelhofer, a professor of English literature at Durham University and facilitator of the soul cake challenge. â€œHowever, it doesnâ€™t give us the quantitiesâ€”nor does it tell us how long to bake it. So you have to work out for yourself what to do with the ingredients.â€ Spearheaded by Dr. Ravelhofer and the Records of Early English Drama North East team, the Great Northern Soul Cake Bake doubles as a competition and crowdsourcing project. By challenging the public to decode the bare-bones recipe, the research team hopes to understand and resurrect the original soul cakeâ€”as well as the tradition that surrounds it.
Soul cakes are connected to Britainâ€™s early Christian celebrations known as All Saintsâ€™ Day and All Soulsâ€™ Day, Halloween-like festivities commemorating the recently departed. On November 2nd, beggars would weave their way through the chilly darkness, rapping on wealthy homeownersâ€™ doors in exchange for a soul cake. But obtaining it was no cake walk. To successfully soul, one had to sing for sweets.
Whether it be musical or theatrical, souling required performance in exchange for a cakeâ€”a tradition that looks a lot like modern-day trick-or-treating. And, though itâ€™s impossible to definitively claim souling as the progenitor of tricking and treating, Dr. Ravelhofer says theyâ€™re certainly connected. However, she points out, there are key differences. â€œA soul-caker was somebody who did something to obtain something,â€ she says. â€œWhereas trick-or-treating strikes me as, â€˜Give me something or else Iâ€™ll do something.â€™â€
Demanding candy door-to-door, she posits, is a â€œslightly degenerated, commercialized formâ€ of the All Soulsâ€™ Day transactions of medieval Europe. Souling, Dr. Ravelhofer adds, also had a strong connection to charity and memoriam. The act of doling out freshly baked goods, while thinking of a â€œpoor, departed soul,â€ filled two needs with one deed, giving to the hungry and freeing a soul in question from Purgatory in one fell swoop.
While vestigial remnants of this practice can still be found in some parts of England, the tradition of souling, and the cakes that came with it, have since disappearedâ€”until now.
To more fully understand the history and tradition of All Souls Day, Dr. Ravelhofer and her team devised the bake off. The technical challenge (the first of a series of three) called for readers to recreate a successful iteration of the festive bun using only Elinor Fettiplaceâ€™s 17th-century recipe, which reads:
â€œTake flower & sugar & nutmeg & cloves & mace & sweet butter & sack & a little ale barm, beat your spice & put in your butter & your sack, cold, then work it well all together & make it in little cakes & so bake them, if you will you may put in some saffron into them or fruit.â€
Folks from across the globe responded, submitting recipes, photographs, and anecdotes via email, Facebook, and Twitter, with results ranging from wild successes to valiant flops.
â€œWe had proper food archaeologists who really got into the spirit of things, and then we had candidates who tried to microwave it,â€ says Dr. Ravelhofer.
David Petts, Senior Lecturer in Archaeology at Durham University, posted about his soul cakes on his personal blog, likening them to â€œslightly dense hot-cross buns.â€ Another participant found that using a ruby or dark ale gave the cakes a soft, chewy texture. Yet another made a successful stoneground cake by adding rye, theorizing that medieval bakers may have used additional grains.
But cataloguing the failed cakes, Dr. Ravelhofer says, has been just as informative as admiring the more edible ones.
Understanding what doesnâ€™t work, and why, allows historians to do detective work when it comes to understanding what the recipe may or may not have looked like.