Category Archive 'Individualism'
12 Nov 2019
David Noonan, in Scientific American, surprisingly enough, has positive things to say about the influence of Christianity and the Church of Rome on Western Civilization.
Perhaps even more surprisingly, this article treats Individualism as a positive and implicitly acknowledges the inferiority of other cultures.
In what may come as a surprise to freethinkers and nonconformists happily defying social conventions these days in New York City, Paris, Sydney and other centers of Western culture, a new study traces the origins of contemporary individualism to the powerful influence of the Catholic Church in Europe more than 1,000 years ago, during the Middle Ages.
According to the researchers, strict church policies on marriage and family structure completely upended existing social norms and led to what they call â€œglobal psychological variation,â€ major changes in behavior and thinking that transformed the very nature of the European populations.
The study, published this week in Science, combines anthropology, psychology and history to track the evolution of the West, as we know it, from its roots in â€œkin-basedâ€ societies. The antecedents consisted of clans, derived from networks of tightly interconnected ties, that cultivated conformity, obedience and in-group loyaltyâ€”while displaying less trust and fairness with strangers and discouraging independence and analytic thinking.
The engine of that evolution, the authors propose, was the churchâ€™s obsession with incest and its determination to wipe out the marriages between cousins that those societies were built on. The result, the paper says, was the rise of â€œsmall, nuclear households, weak family ties, and residential mobility,â€ along with less conformity, more individuality, and, ultimately, a set of values and a psychological outlook that characterize the Western world. The impact of this change was clear: the longer a societyâ€™s exposure to the church, the greater the effect.
Around A.D. 500, explains Joseph Henrich, chair of Harvard Universityâ€™s department of human evolutionary biology and senior author of the study, â€œthe Western church, unlike other brands of Christianity and other religions, begins to implement this marriage and family program, which systematically breaks down these clans and kindreds of Europe into monogamous nuclear families. And we make the case that this then results in these psychological differences.â€
In their comparison of kin-based and church-influenced populations, Henrich and his colleagues identified significant differences in everything from the frequency of blood donations to the use of checks (instead of cash) and the results of classic psychology testsâ€”such as the passengerâ€™s dilemma scenario, which elicits attitudes about telling a lie to help a friend. They even looked at the number of unpaid parking tickets accumulated by delegates to the United Nations.
â€œWe really wanted to combine the kinds of measures that psychologists use, that give you some control in the lab, with real-world measures,â€ Henrich says. â€œWe really like the parking tickets. We get the U.N. diplomats from around the world all in New York City and see how they behave.â€
The policy has since changed, but for years diplomats who parked illegally were not required to pay the tickets the police wrote. In their analysis of those tickets, the researchers found that over the course of one year, diplomats from countries with higher levels of â€œkinship intensityâ€â€”the prevalence of clans and very tight families in a societyâ€”had many more unpaid parking tickets than those from countries without such history. Diplomats from Sweden and Canada, for example, had no outstanding tickets in the period studied, while unpaid parking tickets per diplomat were about 249 for Kuwait, 141 for Egypt and 126 for Chad. Henrich attributes this phenomenon to the insular mind-set that is characteristic of intense kinship.
While it builds a close and very cooperative group, that sense of cooperation does not carry beyond the group. â€œThe idea is that you are less concerned about strangers, people you donâ€™t know, outsiders,â€ he says.
The West itself is not uniform in kinship intensity. Working with cousin-marriage data from 92 provinces in Italy (derived from church records of requests for dispensations to allow the marriages), the researchers write, they found that â€œItalians from provinces with higher rates of cousin marriage take more loans from family and friends (instead of from banks), use fewer checks (preferring cash), and keep more of their wealth in cash instead of in banks, stocks, or other financial assets.â€ They were also observed to make fewer voluntary, unpaid blood donations.
In the course of their research, Henrich and his colleagues created a database and calculated â€œthe duration of exposureâ€ to the Western church for every country in the world, as well as 440 â€œsubnational European regions.â€ They then tested their predictions about the influence of the church at three levels: globally, at the national scale; regionally, within European countries; and among the adult children of immigrants in Europe from countries with varying degrees of exposure to the church.
The thesis of this study, unfortunately, is a classic case of mechanistic scientism. It would make much more sense to point out that Christianity fosters Individualism through ideas, that recognition of the value of the human individual is rooted in Christianity’s teaching that everyone has a soul and consequently possesses human dignity, and that each individual needs to pursue his soul’s salvation.
29 Nov 2015
Rod Dreher posts a letter from an anonymous (and not entirely grammatical) conservative college professor.
[W]hen people my parentsâ€™ age scoff at the whole trans thing and dismiss it as just the cause du jour (remember Darfur? neither do any of the SJWs), I shake my head and tell them they have no idea whatâ€™s coming. The project of the Willed Self is a natural outgrowth of Enlightenment thinking. (I share your opinion that Submission is not a great book, but a very important one in terms of exposing the internal contradictions of the Enlightenment.) The whole intellectual movement of the last three centuries has at its core the principle of freeing the willed self from all constraints. The trans movement represents this ideaâ€™s apex: if we can free ourselves from basic biology and anatomy, then truly we have become gods. â€œI am that I amâ€ is no longer confined to Exodus 3; it is the mantra of the willed self freed from all external barriers. There is nothing beyond the subjective, the personal, the therapeutic, because all that matters is how I define my own self, my own existence, and my own gratification. There can be no society or community within this worldview. Patrick Deneen was right in that â€œAfter Liberalismâ€ lecture he gave: Enlightenment liberalism has been scary for we [sic] traditional conservatives, but whatâ€™s coming next â€” whatâ€™s coming now â€” is terrifying.
15 Oct 2015
In the New Yorker, Kathryn Schulz looks at Henry David Thoreau through the lenses of contemporary leftist community of fashion ideology, and does not like what she sees. Thoreau may have been keen on Abolition, but he is not a leftist radical at all. He is a shameless individualist, and if you look closely enough, eeek! he is liable to remind you of Ayn Rand.
The real Thoreau was, in the fullest sense of the word, self-obsessed: narcissistic, fanatical about self-control, adamant that he required nothing beyond himself to understand and thrive in the world. From that inward fixation flowed a social and political vision that is deeply unsettling. It is true that Thoreau was an excellent naturalist and an eloquent and prescient voice for the preservation of wild places. But â€œWaldenâ€ is less a cornerstone work of environmental literature than the original cabin porn: a fantasy about rustic life divorced from the reality of living in the woods, and, especially, a fantasy about escaping the entanglements and responsibilities of living among other people. …
Thoreau went to Walden, he tells us, â€œto learn what are the gross necessaries of lifeâ€: whatever is so essential to survival â€œthat few, if any, whether from savageness, or poverty, or philosophy, ever attempt to do without it.â€ Put differently, he wanted to try what we would today call subsistence living, a condition attractive chiefly to those not obliged to endure it. It attracted Thoreau because he â€œwanted to live deep and suck out all the marrow of life, to live so sturdily and Spartan-like as to put to rout all that was not life.â€ Tucked into that sentence is a strange distinction; apparently, some of the things we experience while alive count as life while others do not. In â€œWalden,â€ Thoreau made it his business to distinguish between them.
As it turns out, very little counted as life for Thoreau. Food, drink, friends, family, community, tradition, most work, most education, most conversation: all this he dismissed as outside the real business of living. Although Thoreau also found no place in life for organized religion, the criteria by which he drew such distinctions were, at base, religious. A dualist all the way down, he divided himself into soul and body, and never could accept the latter. â€œI love any other piece of nature, almost, better,â€ he confided to his journal. The physical realities of being human appalled him. â€œThe wonder is how they, how you and I, can live this slimy, beastly life, eating and drinking,â€ he wrote in â€œWalden.â€ Only by denying such appetites could he feel that he was tending adequately to his soul.
â€œWalden,â€ in consequence, is not a paean to living simply; it is a paean to living purely, with all the moral judgment that the word implies. In its first chapter, â€œEconomy,â€ Thoreau lays out a program of abstinence so thoroughgoing as to make the Dalai Lama look like a Kardashian. (That chapter must be one of the highest barriers to entry in the Western canon: dry, sententious, condescending, more than eighty pages long.) Thoreau, who never wed, regarded â€œsensualityâ€ as a dangerous contaminant, by which we â€œstain and pollute one another.â€ He did not smoke and avoided eating meat. He shunned alcohol, although with scarcely more horror than he shunned every beverage except water: â€œThink of dashing the hopes of a morning with a cup of warm coffee, or of an evening with a dish of tea! Ah, how low I fall when I am tempted by them!â€ Such temptations, along with the dangerous intoxicant that is music, had, he felt, caused the fall of Greece and Rome.
I cannot idolize anyone who opposes coffee. …
Unsurprisingly, this thoroughgoing misanthrope did not care to help other people. â€œI confess that I have hitherto indulged very little in philanthropic enterprises,â€ Thoreau wrote in â€œWalden.â€ He had â€œtried it fairlyâ€ and was â€œsatisfied that it does not agree with my constitution.â€ Nor did spontaneous generosity: â€œI require of a visitor that he be not actually starving, though he may have the very best appetite in the world, however he got it. Objects of charity are not guests.â€ In what is by now a grand American tradition, Thoreau justified his own parsimony by impugning the needy. â€œOften the poor man is not so cold and hungry as he is dirty and ragged and gross. It is partly his taste, and not merely his misfortune. If you give him money, he will perhaps buy more rags with it.â€ Thinking of that state of affairs, Thoreau writes, â€œI began to pity myself, and I saw that it would be a greater charity to bestow on me a flannel shirt than a whole slop-shop on him.â€
The poor, the rich, his neighbors, his admirers, strangers: Thoreauâ€™s antipathy toward humanity even encompassed the very idea of civilization. In his journals, he laments the archeological wealth of Great Britain and gives thanks that in New England â€œwe have not to lay the foundation of our houses in the ashes of a former civilization.â€ That is patently untrue, but it is also telling: for Thoreau, civilization was a contaminant. â€œDeliver me from a city built on the site of a more ancient city, whose materials are ruins, whose gardens cemeteries,â€ he wrote in â€œWalden.â€ â€œThe soil is blanched and accursed there.â€ Seen by these lights, Thoreauâ€™s retreat at Walden was a desperate compromise. What he really wanted was to be Adam, before Eveâ€”to be the first human, unsullied, utterly alone in his Eden. …
Thoreau never understood that life itself is not consistentâ€”that what worked for a well-off Harvard-educated man without dependents or obligations might not make an ideal universal code.) Those failings are ethical and intellectual, but they are also political. To reject all certainties but oneâ€™s own is the behavior of a zealot; to issue contradictory decrees based on private whim is that of a despot.
This is not the stuff of a democratic hero. Nor were Thoreauâ€™s actual politics, which were libertarian verging on anarchist. Like todayâ€™s preppers, he valued self-sufficiency for reasons that were simultaneously self-aggrandizing and suspicious: he did not believe that he needed anything from other people, and he did not trust other people to provide it. â€œThat government is best which governs least,â€ Jefferson supposedly said. Thoreau, revising him, wrote, â€œThat government is best which governs not at all.â€
Yet for a man who believed in governance solely by conscience, his own was frighteningly narrow. Thoreau had no understanding whatsoever of poverty and consistently romanticized it. (â€œFarmers are respectable and interesting to me in proportion as they are poor.â€) His moral clarity about abolition stemmed less from compassion or a commitment to equality than from the fact that slavery so blatantly violated his belief in self-governance. Indeed, when abolition was pitted against rugged individualism, the latter proved his higher priority. â€œI sometimes wonder that we can be so frivolous, I may almost say,â€ he writes in â€œWalden,â€ â€œas to attend to the gross but somewhat foreign form of servitude called Negro Slavery, there are so many keen and subtle masters that enslave both North and South. It is hard to have a Southern overseer; it is worse to have a Northern one; but worst of all when you are the slave-driver of yourself.” …
Although Thoreau is often regarded as a kind of cross between Emerson, John Muir, and William Lloyd Garrison, the man who emerges in â€œWaldenâ€ is far closer in spirit to Ayn Rand: suspicious of government, fanatical about individualism, egotistical, Ã©litist, convinced that other people lead pathetic lives yet categorically opposed to helping them. It is not despite but because of these qualities that Thoreau makes such a convenient national hero. …
[T]he mature position, and the one at the heart of the American democracy, seeks a balance between the individual and the society. Thoreau lived out that complicated balance; the pity is that he forsook it, together with all fellow-feeling, in â€œWalden.â€ And yet we made a classic of the book, and a moral paragon of its authorâ€”a man whose deepest desire and signature act was to turn his back on the rest of us.
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